Technology

/Technology
Technology 2017-11-10T14:26:34+00:00

Investment casting is a manufacturing process in which a wax pattern is coated with a refractory ceramic material. Once the ceramic material is hardened its internal geometry takes the shape of the casting. The wax is melted out and molten metal is poured into the cavity where the wax pattern was. The metal solidifies within the ceramic mold and then the metal casting is broken out. This manufacturing technique is also known as the lost wax process. Investment casting was developed over 5500 years ago and can trace its roots back to both ancient Egypt and China. Parts manufactured in industry by this process include dental fixtures, gears, cams, ratchets, jewelry, turbine blades, machinery components and other parts of complex geometry.

The Process

The first step in investment casting is to manufacture the wax pattern for the process. The pattern for this process may also be made from plastic; however it is often made of wax since it will melt out easily and wax can be reused. Since the pattern is destroyed in the process, one will be needed for each casting to be made. When producing parts in any quantity, a mold from which to manufacture patterns will be desired. Similar to the mold that may be employed in the expanded polystyrene casting process to produce foam polystyrene patterns, the mold to create wax patterns may be cast or machined. The size of this master die must be carefully calculated. It must take into consideration shrinkage of wax, shrinkage of the ceramic material invested over the wax pattern and shrinkage of the metal casting. It may take some trial and error to get just the right size, therefore these molds can be expensive.

Sand casting, the most widely used casting process, utilizes expendable sand molds to form complex metal parts that can be made of nearly any alloy. Because the sand mold must be destroyed in order to remove the part, called the casting, sand casting typically has a low production rate. The sand casting process involves the use of a furnace, metal, pattern, and sand mold. The metal is melted in the furnace and then ladled and poured into the cavity of the sand mold, which is formed by the pattern. The sand mold separates along a parting line and the solidified casting can be removed. The steps in this process are described in greater detail in the next section.

Sand casting mold overview
Sand casting overview

Sand casting is used to produce a wide variety of metal components with complex geometries. These parts can vary greatly in size and weight, ranging from a couple ounces to several tons. Some smaller sand cast parts include components as gears, pulleys, crankshafts, connecting rods, and propellers. Larger applications include housings for large equipment and heavy machine bases. Sand casting is also common in producing automobile components, such as engine blocks, engine manifolds, cylinder heads, and transmission cases.

Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is created using two hardened tool steel dies which have been machined into shape and work similarly to an injection mold during the process. Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals, specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, pewter and tin-based alloys. Depending on the type of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chamber machine is used.

The casting equipment and the metal dies represent large capital costs and this tends to limit the process to high-volume production. Manufacture of parts using die casting is relatively simple, involving only four main steps, which keeps the incremental cost per item low. It is especially suited for a large quantity of small- to medium-sized castings, which is why die casting produces more castings than any other casting process. Die castings are characterized by a very good surface finish (by casting standards) and dimensional consistency.

Two variants are pore-free die casting, which is used to eliminate gas porosity defects; and direct injection die casting, which is used with zinc castings to reduce scrap and increase yield.

The main die casting alloys are: zinc, aluminium, magnesium, copper, lead, and tin; although uncommon, ferrous die casting is also possible. Specific die casting alloys include: Zamak; zinc aluminium; aluminium to, e.g. The Aluminum Association (AA) standards: AA 380, AA 384, AA 386, AA 390; and AZ91D magnesium. The following is a summary of the advantages of each alloy:

  • Zinc: the easiest metal to cast; high ductility; high impact strength; easily plated; economical for small parts; promotes long die life.
  • Aluminium: lightweight; high dimensional stability for complex shapes and thin walls; good corrosion resistance; good mechanical properties; high thermal and electrical conductivity; retains strength at high temperatures.
  • Magnesium: the easiest metal to machine; excellent strength-to-weight ratio; lightest alloy commonly die cast.
  • Copper: high hardness; high corrosion resistance; highest mechanical properties of alloys die cast; excellent wear resistance; excellent dimensional stability; strength approaching that of steel parts.
  • Silicon tombac: high-strength alloy made of copper, zinc and silicon. Often used as an alternative for investment casted steel parts.
  • Lead and tin: high density; extremely close dimensional accuracy; used for special forms of corrosion resistance. Such alloys are not used in foodservice applications for public health reasons. Type metal, an alloy of lead, tin and antimony (with sometimes traces of copper) is used for casting hand-set type in letterpress printing and hot foil blocking. Traditionally cast in hand jerk moulds now predominantly die cast after the industrialisation of the type foundries. Around 1900 the slug casting machines came onto the market and added further automation, with sometimes dozens of casting machines at one newspaper office.

Maximum weight limits for aluminium, brass, magnesium and zinc castings are approximately 70 pounds (32 kg), 10 lb (4.5 kg), 44 lb (20 kg), and 75 lb (34 kg), respectively.

The material used defines the minimum section thickness and minimum draft required for a casting as outlined in the table below. The thickest section should be less than 13 mm (0.5 in), but can be greater.

Casting is broadly defined as the process of forming a substance into a specific shape using a mold. Metal casting employs a variety of metals to create the molded end product and dates back thousands of years.

Some of the metal casting processes and materials used in ancient times are still in use today. There are numerous reliable and effective metal casting materials that are used for industrial purposes. The most commonly used resources are:

• Gray iron
• Ductile iron
• Aluminum
• Steel
• Copper
• Zinc

Gray Iron Casting

Gray iron is one of the most frequently used casting materials in industrial manufacturing. Accounting for a large portion of casting supply markets, it is a strong, versatile substance. Gray iron can be machined easily, tested for quality without using destructive methods, formulated to meet specific application requirements, and is cost-effective at high volumes. It is suited to a variety of applications, including those that require:

• Damping or vibration control
• High strength to weight ratios
• Dimensional stability

Ductile Iron Casting

For processes requiring greater strength than that provided by gray iron casting, ductile iron casting may be a useful alternative. Ductile iron shares similar traits with gray iron, and thus has many of the same advantages. However, ductile iron differs from gray iron casting in the following ways:

• Greater strength
• Improved wear resistance
• Stronger toughness
• Superior ductility
• Reduced weight
• Reduced shrinkage
• Lower cost

Austenitic Stainless Steel Investment casting Alloy Compositions
Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Phosphorus Sulfur Copper Iron Other Melting Range
Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Max Min-Max Min-Max
Alloy Type
CF-16Fa (303) Investment casting 0.16 Max 1.5 Max 2.0 Max 18.0 -21.0 9.0-12.0 0.40-0.80 0.04 0.20-0.40 Bal. 2550-2650
CF-8 (304) Investment casting 0.08 Max 1.5 Max 2.0 Max 18.0-21.0 8.0-11.0 0.04 0.04 Max Bal. 2500-2650
CF-3 (304L) Investment casting 0.03 Max 1.5 Max 2.0 Max 17.0-21.0 8.0-12.0 0.04 0.04 Max Bal. 2550-2650
CF-8M (316) Investment casting 0.08 Max 1.5 Max 2.0 Max 18.0-21.0 9.0-12.0 2.0-3.0 0.04 0.04 Max Bal. 2500-2550
CF-3M (316L) Investment casting 0.03 Max 1.5 Max 1.5 Max 17.0-21.0 9.0-13.0 2.0-3.0 0.04 0.04 Max Bal. 2500-2550
316/Non Mag Investment casting 0.08 Max 2.0 Max 1.0 Max 16.0-18.0 11.0-14.0 2.0-3.0 0.04 0.04 Max Bal. 2450-2500
HT (330) Investment casting 0.35-0.75 2.00 Max 2.50 Max 15.0-19.0 33.0-37.0 0.5 0.04 0.04 Max Bal. 2400-2500
CF-8C (347) Investment casting 0.08 Max 1.5 Max 2 Max 18.0-21.0 9.0-12.0 0.04 0.04 Max Bal. Cb (Nb) = (8xC Min.0% Max 2500-2600
CN-7M (Alloy20) Investment casting 0.07 Max 1.50 Max 1.50 Max 19.0-22.0 27.5-30.5 2.00-3.00 0.04 0.04 Max 1.5-2.0 Bal. 2500-2550
CF10SMnN Investment casting 0.10 Max 7.00-9.00 3.50-4.50 16.0-18.0 8.0-9.0 0.06 0.04 Max Bal. Nitrogen 0.08-0.18 2450-2550
Austenitic Stainless Steel Investment casting Alloy Properties Cross-Index of Various Alloy Designations for Austenitic Stainless Steel Investment casting Alloys
Austenitic Stainless Steel Investment casting Alloy Properties
Condition Tensile Strength 0.2% Yield Strength % Elongation Range (2.5 cm or 1”) Hardness RB Max Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloy Cross-Index
Alloy Type English PSI Metric MPa English PSI Metric MPa Alloy or Type AMS Other Designation
CF-16Fa (303) Investment casting Solution Annealed 70-85,000 483-586 30-40,000 207-276 25-40 90 303 Investment casting 5341 ASTM A743 CF-16F
CF-8 (303) Investment casting Solution Annealed 70-85,000 483-586 30-50,000 207-345 30-50 90 304 (CF-8) Investment casting 5370 ASTM A743 CF-8
CF-3 (304L) Investment casting Solution Annealed 70-85,000 483-586 30-50,000 207-345 30-50 90 304L (CF-3) Investment casting 5371 ASTM A743 CF-3
CF-8M (316) Investment casting Solution Annealed 70-85,000 483-586 30-50,000 207-345 30-50 90 316 (CF-8M) Investment casting 5360 ASTM A743 CF-8M
CF-3M (316L) Investment casting Solution Annealed 70-85,000 483-586 30-50,000 207-345 30-50 90 316L (CF-3M) Investment casting ASTM A743 CF-3M
316 Non-Magnetic Investment casting Solution Annealed 70-85,000 483-586 30-50,000 207-345 30-50 90 316 Non-Magnetic Investment casting
HT (330) Investment casting As casting 65-75,000 448-517 30-50 90 330 HT Investment casting ASTM A297 HT
CF-8C (347) Investment casting Solution Annealed 70-85,000 483-586 30-40,000 207-276 30-40 90 347 (CF-8C) Investment casting ASTM A743 CF-8C
CN-7M (Alloy 20) Investment casting Solution Annealed 62-80,000 427-552 25-35,000 172-241 25-40 90 Alloy 20 (CN-7M) Investment casting ASTM A743 CN-7M
CF10SMnN Investment casting Solution Annealed 85-100,000 586-689 42-55,000 290-379 30-50 100 CF-10SMnN Investment casting * Nitronic 60® ASTM A743 CF-10SMnN
Plain Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Investment casting Compositions
Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Phosphorus Sulfur Iron Other Melting
Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Max Max Range
Alloy Type
1020 Investment casting 0.15-0.25 0.20-0.60 0.20-0.60 0.25 Max 0.25 Max 0.25 Max 0.04 0.045 Bal. Cu 0.25 Max 2770-2810
1045 Investment casting 0.40-0.50 0.50-0.90 0.20-0.50 0.05 0.06 Bal. 2700-2740
1050 Investment casting 0.45-0.55 0.70-1.00 0.20-1.00 0.25 Max 0.25 Max 0.25 Max 0.04 0.04 Bal. Cu 0.25 Max 2700-2740
1095 Investment casting 0.90-1.03 0.30-0.50 0.20-1.00 0.25 Max 0.25 Max 0.10 Max 0.04 0.05 Bal. Cu 0.25 Max 2700-2740
4130 Investment casting 0.25-0.35 0.40-0.70 0.20-0.80 0.80-1.10 0.25 Max 0.15-0.25 0.04 0.04 Bal. Cu 0.25 Max 2775-2815
4140 Investment casting 0.35-0.45 0.75-1.0 0.20-0.80 0.80-1.10 0.25 Max 0.15-0.25 0.04 0.04 Bal. Cu .25 Max 2765-2805
4150 Investment casting 0.45-0.55 0.75-1.0 0.20-0.80 0.80-1.10 0.25 Max 0.15-0.25 0.04 0.04 Bal. 2750-2790
4340 Investment casting 0.36-0.44 0.60-0.90 0.20-0.80 0.70-0.90 1.65-2.00 0.20-0.30 0.04 0.04 Bal. Cu .35 Max 2720-2760
6150 Investment casting 0.45-0.55 0.65-0.95 0.20-0.80 0.80-1.10 0.04 0.04 Bal. V .15 Min 2700-2740
8620 Investment casting 0.15-0.25 0.65-0.95 0.28-0.80 0.40-0.70 0.40-0.70 0.15-0.25 0.04 0.04 Bal. Cu .25 Max 2700-2740
8640 Investment casting 0.35-0.45 0.70-1.05 0.20-0.80 0.40-0.60 0.40-0.70 0.15-0.25 0.04 0.04 Bal. 2720-2740
8650 Investment casting 0.45-0.55 0.70-1.05 0.20-0.80 0.40-0.60 0.40-0.70 0.15-0.25 0.04 0.04 Bal. 2730-2740
Plain Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Investment casting Properties Low Alloy Steel Investment casting Alloys
—— Condition Tensile Strength 0.2% Yield Strength % Elongation Range (2.5 cm or 1”) Hardness Range or Max Alloy or Type AMS Other Designation
Alloy Type —— English PSI Metric MPa English PSI Metric MPa —— —— 1020 Investment casting —— SAE J403ASTM A732 1A MIL-S-22141B IC1020
1020 Investment casting Annealed 60-70,000 414-483 40-45,000 276-310 25-40 80 Rb 1045 Investment casting —— —— ——
1045 Investment casting Annealed Hardened 80-90,000 100-180,000 552-621 690-1241 50-60,000 90-180,000 345-414 621-1241 20-25 0-10 100 Rb 25-57 Rc 1050 Investment casting —— ASTM A732 4A, 4Q MIL-S-22141B IC1050
1050 Investment casting Annealed Hardened 90-110,000 125-180,000 621-758 862-1241 50-65,000 100-180,000 345-448 690-1241 10-25 0-10 100 Rb 20-45 Rc 1095 Investment casting —— —— ——
1095 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – – – – – – – – – – 100 Rb 40-60 Rc 4130 Investment casting 5336 ASTM A732 7Q MIL-S-22141B IC4130
4130 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 130-170,000 -2068 – 100-130,000 -1586 -25 100 Rb 23-49 Rc 4140 Investment casting 5338 ASTM A732 8Q MIL-S-22141B IC4140
4140 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 130-200,000 -2270 – 100-155,000 -1759 -25 100 Rb 29-57 Rc —— —— —— ——
4150 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 140-200,000 -2359 – 120-180,000 -2068 -15 100 Rb 25-58 Rc —— —— —— ——
4340 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 130-200,000 -2270 – 100-180,000 -1931 -25 20 Rc 20-55 Rc —— —— —— ——
6150 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 140-200,000 -2359 – 120-180,000 -2068 -15 100 Rb 30-60 Rc —— —— —— ——
8620 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 100-130,000 -1586 – 80-110,000 -1310 -30 100 Rb 20-45 Rc —— —— —— ——
8640 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 130-120,000 -2270 – 100-180,000 -1931 -25 20 Rc 30-60 Rc —— —— —— ——
8650 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 140-200,000 -2359 – 120-180,000 -2068 -14 25 Rc 30-58 Rc —— —— —— ——
Martensitic Stainless Steel Alloy Investment casting Compositions
Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Phosphorous Sulfur Copper Iron Other Melting
Min-Max Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Max Min-Max Min-Max Range
Alloy Type
410 (CA-15) Investment casting 0.05-0.15 1 1.5 Max 11.5-14.0 1.0  Max 0.5 Max 0.04 0.04 Max 0.50 Max Bal. 2700-2790
416 Investment casting 0.15 Max 1.25 1.50 Max 11.5-14.0 0.50 Max 0.50 Max 0.05 0.15-0.35 0.50 Max Bal. Zr 0.50 Max 2700-2790
420 Investment Grade 0.15 Max 1 1.0 Max 12.0-14.0 0.04 0.03 Max Bal. 2650-2750
15-5 PH Investment casting 0.05 Max 0.6 0.50-1.00 14.00-15.50 4.20-5.00 0.025 0.025 Max 2.5-3.2 Bal. Cb+Ta 0.15-0.30 N 0.05 Max 2560-2625
17-4 PH Investment casting 0.06 Max 0.7 0.50-1.00 15.5-16.7 3.60-4.60 0.04 0.03 Max 2.8-3.5 Bal. Cb+Ta 0.15-0.30 N 0.05 Max 2560-2625
440A Investment casting 0.60-0.75 1 1.0 Max 16.0-18.0 0.75 Max 0.35-0.75 0.04 0.03 Max Bal. 2500-2750
440C Investment casting 0.95-1.20 1 1.0 Max 16.0-18.0 0.75 Max 0.35-0.75 0.04 0.03 Max Bal. 2500-2700
CA-6NM Investment casting 0.06 Max 1 1.00 Max 11.5-14.0 3.5-4.5 0.40-1.00 0.04 0.03 Bal. 2500-2550
Martensitic Stainless Steel Alloy Properties Cross-Index of Alloy Designations of Martensitic Stainless Steel Alloy Investment casting Alloys
Martensitic Stainless Steel Alloy Properties Martensitic Stainless Steel Alloy Cross-Index
Condition Tensile Strength 0.2% Yield Strength % Elongation Range (2.5 cm or 1”) Hardness Range or Max Alloy or Type AMS Other Designation
Alloy Type English PSI Metric MPa English PSI Metric MPa 410 (CA-15) Investment casting 5350, 5351 ASTM A743 CA-15
410 (CA-15) Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 90-200,000 -2015 – 65-160,000 -1551 -25 100 Rb Max 94Rb-45Rc 416 Investment casting 5349 Type 1 IC 416
416 Investment casting Annealed Hardened 100Rb 94Rb-45Rc 420 (CA-40) Investment casting ASTM A743 CA-40
420 Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 90-220,000 -2186 – 65-160,000 -1551 -21 25 Rc Max 25-45 Rc 15-5 PH Investment casting 5346, 5347, 5356, 5357, 5400 ASTM A747 CB7-Cu2
15-5 PH Investment casting Hardened 125-170,000 862-1172 – 97-145,000 669-1000 5月15日 26-38 Rc 17-4 PH Investment casting 5342, 5343, 5355 ASTM A747 CB7-Cu1
17-4 PH Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 125-190,000 -2172 – 97-160,000 -1772 -20 36 Rc Max 30-44 Rc 440A Investment casting IC 440A
440A Investment casting Annealed Hardened 30 Rc Max 35-56Rc 440C Investment casting 5352 IC 440C
440C Investment casting Annealed Hardened 35 Rc Max 40-60 Rc CA-6MN Investment casting ASTM A743 CA-6NM
CA-6NM Investment casting Annealed Hardened – 120-140,000 -1792 – 100-130,000 -1585 -40 28 Rc Max 28-36 Rc
Ferritic Stainless Steel Investment casting Alloy Chemical Compositions
Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Phosphorous Max Sulfur Copper Iron Other Melting
Max Max Max Min-Max Max Max Max Max Range
Alloy Type
409/Nb Investment casting 0.16 1.5 2 10.5-11.75 0.5 0.045 0.045 Bal. Cb (Nb) 8*C Min 1.00 Max 2550-2650
442 (CB-30) Investment casting 0.3 1 1.5 18.0-22.0 2 0.04 0.04 Bal. 2650-2750
446 (CC-50) Investment casting 0.5 1 1.5 26.0-30.0 4 0.04 0.04 Bal. 2650-2750
Ferritic Stainless Steel Investment casting Alloy Properties Cross-Index of Various Alloy Designations of Ferritic Stainless Steel Investment casting Alloys
Ferritic Stainless Steel Alloy Properties Ferritic Stainless Steel Alloy Cross-Index
Condition Tensile Strength 0.2% Yield Strength % Elongation Range (2.5 cm or 1”) Hardness Max Alloy or Type AMS Other Designation
Alloy Type English PSI Metric MPa English PSI Metric MPa 409/Nb Investment casting
409/Nb Investment casting Annealed 100 Rb 442 (CB-30) Investment casting ASTM A743 CB-30
442 (CB-30) Investment casting Annealed 65-100,000 448-689 30-70.000 207-483 15-25 241 BHN Max 446 (CC-50) Investment casting ASTM A743 CC-50
446 (CC-50) Investment casting Annealed 55-95,000 379-655 241 BHN Max
Super Duplex Stainless Steel Investment Cast Alloy Chemical Compositions
Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Phosphorous Max Sulfur Copper Iron Other Melting Range
Max Max Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Max Min-Max
Alloy Type
ASTM A890 Grade 1A (CD4MCu) 0.04 1 1 24.5-26.5 4.75-6.00 1.75-2.25 0.04 0.04 2.75-3.25 Bal. —— 2630-2680
ASTM A890 Grade1B (CD4MCuN) 0.03 1 1 24.5-26.5 4.7- 6.0 1.7-2.3 0.04 0.04 2.7-3.3 Bal. N 0.10-0.25 2630-2680
ASTM A890 Grade 1C (CD3MCuN) 0.03 1.2 1.1 24-26.7 5.6-6.7 2.9-3.8 0.03 0.03 1.4-1.9 Bal. N 0.10-0.30 2630-2680
ASTM A890 Grade 2A (CE8MN) 0.08 1 1.5 22.5-25.5 5.6-6.7 3-4.5 0.03 0.03 1.4-1.9 Bal. N 0.22-0.33 2630-2680
ASTM A890 Grade3A (CD6MN) 0.06 1 1 24-27 4–6 1.75-2.5 0.04 0.04 —— Bal. N 0.15-0.25 2630-2680
ASTM A890 Grade 4A (CD3MN) 0.03 1.5 1 21.0-23.0 4.5- 6.5 2.5-3.5 0.04 0.02 1.00 Max Bal. N 0.10-0.30 2630-2680
ASTM A890 Grade 5A (CE3MN) 0.03 1.5 1 24–26 6–8 4–5 0.04 0.04 —— Bal. N 0.10-0.30 2630-2680
ASTM A890 Grade 6A (CD3MWCnN) 0.03 1 1 24–26 6.5–8.5 3–4 0.03 0.025 0.5–1 Bal. N 0.20-0.30 2630-2680
Duplex Stainless Steel Investment Cast Alloy Properties  Duplex Stainless Steel Investment Cast Alloys
Duplex Stainless Steel Alloy Properties Duplex Stainless Steel Alloy Cross-Index
Condition Tensile Strength 0.2% Yield Strength % Elongation Range (2.5 cm or 1″) Hardness RB Max Alloy or Type AMS Other Designation
Alloy Type English PSI Metric MPa English PSI Metric MPa CD4MCu ASTM A890 Grade 1A
ASTM A890 Grade 1A CD4MCu Solution Annealed 100Min 690 Min 70, Min 485 Min 16% Min 94Rb – 27Rc CD3MN ASTM A890 Grade 4A
ASTM A890 Grade1B (CD4MCuN) Solution Annealed 100Min 690 Min 70, Min 485 Min 16% Min 94Rb – 27Rc
ASTM A890 Grade 1C (CD3MCuN) Solution Annealed 100Min 690 Min 70, Min 485 Min 16% Min 94Rb – 27Rc
ASTM A890 Grade 2A (CE8MN) Solution Annealed 95Min 655 Min 65, Min 450 Min 25% Min 94Rb – 27Rc
ASTM A890 Grade3A (CD6MN) Solution Annealed 95Min 655 Min 65, Min 450 Min 25% Min 94Rb – 27Rc
ASTM A890 Grade 4A CD3MN Solution Annealed 90, Min 620 Min 60, Min 415 Min 25% Min 90 Rb – 25Rc
ASTM A890 Grade 5A (CE3MN) Solution Annealed 100, Min 690 Min 75 Min 515 Min 18% Min 90 Rb – 25Rc
ASTM A890 Grade 6A (CD3MWCnN) Solution Annealed 90,000 Min 690 Min 65, Min 450 Min 25% Min 90 Rb – 25Rc
Copper Based Investment casting Alloy Compositions
AluMinm Zinc Tin Lead Nickel Iron Silicon Manganese Phosphorous Sulfur Copper Other Melting
Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Max Max Temperature F
Alloy Type
CDA 872 Investment casting 1.5 Max 5 1 0.5 2.5 Max 1.0- 5.0 1.5 89.0 Min 1580-1780
CDA 875 Investment casting 0.50 Max 12.0- 16.0 0.5 3.0- 5.0 79.0 Min 1510-1680
CDA 876 Investment casting 4.0-7.0 0.5 3.5- 5.5 88.0 Min 11580-1780
CDA 903 Investment casting 0.005 Max 3.0-5.0 7.5-9.0 0.25 1 0.20 Max 0.005 Max 0.05 Max 0.05 Max 86.0-89.0 Sb 0.20 Max 1570-1832
CDA 905 Investment casting 0.005 Max 1.0-3.0 9.0-11.0 0.3 0.005 Max 0.05 Max 0.05 Max 86.0-89.0 Sb 0.20 Max 1570-1830
CDA 954 Al. Bronze C Investment casting 10.0- 11.5 2.5 3.0- 5.0 0.5 83.5 Min 1880-1900
Copper Based Investment casting Alloy Properties  Copper Based Investment casting Alloys
Copper Based Alloy Properties Copper Based Alloy Cross-Index
Condition Tensile Strength 0.2% Yield Strength % Elongation Range (2.5 cm or 1”) Typical Hardness Alloy or Type AMS Other Designation
Alloy Type English Metric English Metric CDA 872 Investment casting ASTM B584
PSI MPa PSI MPa CDA 875 Investment casting ASTM B584
CDA 872 Investment casting As casting 45,000 Min 18,000 Min 20 Min 80 500Kg BHN CDA 876 Investment casting ASTM B584
CDA 875 Investment casting As casting 50,000 Min 31,000 Min 18 Min 100 500Kg BHN CDA 903 Investment casting ASTM B584
CDA 876 Investment casting As casting 60,000 Min 30,000 Min 16 Min 110 500Kg BHN CDA 905 Investment casting ASTM B584
CDA 903 Investment casting As casting 40,000 Min 18,000 Min 20 Min 60-75 500Kg BHN CDA 954 AluMinm Bronze C Investment casting ASTM B148
CDA 905 Investment casting As casting 40,000 Min 18,000 Min 20 Min 75-85 500Kg BHN
CDA 954 AluMinm Bronze C Investment casting As casting Heat Treated 75-85,000 90-105,000 517-586 621-724 30-40,000 45-55,000 207-276 310-379 10-20 6-10 150-180 3000Kg BHN 190-235 3000Kg BHN
Nickel Based Investment casting Alloy Specifications
C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo P S Cu Fe Co V W Other Melting
Max Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Max Max Min-Max Min-Max Range
Alloy Type
NI-B N7M Investment casting 0.07 1 1 1.0 Max Bal. 30.0-33.0 0.04 0.03 3.00 Max 2375-2495
NI-C CW-12MW Investment casting 0.12 1 1 15.5-17.5 Bal. 16.0-18.0 0.04 0.03 4.5-7.5 0.20-0.40 3.75-5.25 2310-2450
NI-X AMS5390D Investment casting 0.1 1 1 20.50-23.00 Bal. 8.00-10.00 0.04 0.03 17.00-20.00 0.50-2.50 0.20-1.00 Se 0.0050 Max B 0.010 Max 2300-2470
NI-625 CW-6MC Investment casting 0.06 1 1 20.0-30.0 Bal. 8.00-10.00 0.015 0.015 5.00 Max Cb(Nb) 3.15-4.50 2325-2375
Monel E M30C Investment casting 0.3 1.5 1.0-2.0 Bal.. 0.03 0.03 26.0-33.0 3.5 Cb(Nb) 1.0-3.0 2300-2350
Nickel Based Alloy Properties Nickel Based Investment casting Alloys
Nickel Based Alloy Properties Nickel Based Alloy Cross-Index
Condition Tensile Strength 0.2% Yield Strength % Elongation Range (2.5 cm or 1”) Hardness Range or Max Alloy or Type AMS Other Designation
Alloy Type English psi Metric MPa English psi Metric MPa NI-B Investment casting ASTM A494 N7M
NI-B (N7M) Investment casting Solution Annealed 76,000- 95,000 525-655 40,000- 60,000 276-414 20-30 90 Rb Max NI-C Investment casting ASTM A494 CW-12MW
NI-C (CW-12MW) Investment casting Solution Annealed 72,000- 90,000 496-621 40,000- 60,000 276-414 4.0 Min 90 Rb max NI-X Investment casting 5390D
NI-X (AMS5390D) Investment casting As casting RT 63-70,000 434-483 41-45,000 283-310 10月15日 96 Rb max NI-625 Investment casting ASTM A494 CW-6MC
NI-625 (CW-6MC) Investment casting Solution Annealed 70,000-90,000 483-621 40,000- 60,000 276-414 25-35 90 Rb Max Monel E Investment casting ASTM A494 M30C
Monel E (M30C) Investment casting As casting 65-80,000 448-552 33-40,000 227-276 25-35 65-80 Rb
Tool Steel Investment casting Alloy Chemical Compositions
Carbon Manganese Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Tungsten Vanadium Other Melting
Min-Max Min-Max Max Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Min-Max Temperature
Alloy Type
A-2 Investment casting 0.95-1.05 0.75 1.5 4.75-5.50 0.90-1.40 0.20-0.50 Optional 2500- 2600
A-6 Investment casting 0.65-0.75 1.80-2.20 1 0.80-1.20 0.80-1.30 2500-2600
D-2 Investment casting 1.40-1.60 1 1.5 11.0-13.00 0.70-1.20 0.40-1.00 Optional 2500-2600
L-6 Investment casting 0.65-0.75 0.75 1 1.50-1.90 0.80-1.00 2500-2600
M2 Investment casting 0.78-0.88 0.75 1 0.25 3.75-4.50 4.50-5.50 5.50-6.75 1.25-2.20 2500-2600
O-1 Investment casting 0.85-1.00 1.00-1.30 1.5 0.40-1.00 .40-.60 0.3 2500-2600
S5 Investment casting 0.50-0.65 0.60-1.00 1.75-2.25 0.35 0.20-0.80 0.35 2450-2550
S-7 Investment casting 0.50-0.60 0.50-0.80 1 3.00-3.50 1.20-1.60 2450-2550
Tool Steel Investment casting Alloy Hardness Values
Tool Steel Alloy Hardness
Annealed with Slow Cool Max Cycle Anneal Max Hardened Range Rc Annealed with Slow Cool Max Cycle Anneal Max Hardened Range Rc
Alloy Type Alloy Type
A-2 Investment casting 20 Rc 27 Rc 47-60 M2 Investment casting 30 Rc 61-63
A-6 Investment casting 100 Rb 48-59 O-1 Investment casting 100 Rb 45-61
D-2 Investment casting 35 Rc 50-59 S5 Investment casting 100 Rb 37-59
L-6 Investment casting 95 Rb 39-60 S7 Investment casting 100 Rb 35-57